Question: Suppose you're on a game show, and you're given the choice of three doors: Behind one door is a sports car; behind all of the others is bicycles. You pick a door, say No. 1, and the host, who knows what's behind the doors, opens another door, say No. 2, revealing a bicycle. He then says to you, "Do you want to pick door No. 3?" Is it to your advantage to switch your choice?
Answer: Yes, by changing your answer your chances of winning actually goes up from 1/3 to 2/3.
This becomes obvious when expanding the example. Suppose there was 100 doors rather than 3. You pick one and the host shows you that the car is not behind 98 of the doors then asks you to switch to the remaining door or keep the door you picked. Of course you would switch your door because chances are you didn't pick the correct door initially.
For more explanation go to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monty_Hall_problem#Solutions
Question: You have a glass of water that looks about half full. How can you tell, only using the glass of water itself, if the glass is half full or not?
The glass is a right cylinder.
Answer: Tip the glass of water until the water reaches the rim of the glass and if the water lines up perfectly with the bottom rim of the glass, it is half full.
Question: Jasmine has a toaster with two slots that toasts one side of each piece of bread at a time, and it takes one minute to do so.
If she wants to make 3 pieces of toast, what is the least amount of time she needs to toast them on both sides?
Answer: 3 minutes. She puts two pieces in the toaster, toasting one side of each. Then she flips one of them, takes one out, and puts the completely untoasted piece into the toaster. Finally, she takes out the toasted piece and puts the two half-toasted pieces of bread into the toaster for a minute and she's done.