Question: Three guests check into a hotel room. The clerk says the bill is $30, so each guest pays $10. Later the clerk realizes the bill should only be $25. To rectify this, he gives the bellhop $5 to return to the guests. On the way to the room, the bellhop realizes that he cannot divide the money equally. As the guests didn't know the total of the revised bill, the bellhop decides to just give each guest $1 and keep $2 for himself. Each guest got $1 back: so now each guest only paid $9; bringing the total paid to $27. The bellhop has $2. And $27 + $2 = $29 so, if the guests originally handed over $30, what happened to the remaining $1?
Hint: Make a list of all of the people involved and how much money they ended up with/spent.
Answer: The $9 paid by each guest accounts for the $2 that went to the bellhop. So rather than adding $27 to the $2 kept by the bellhop, the $27 accounts for the bellhops money. The $27 plus the $3 kept by the guests does add up to $30.
Question: You have a flashlight that takes 2 working batteries. You have 8 batteries but only 4 of them work.
What is the fewest number of pairs you need to test to guarantee you can get the flashlight on?
Answer: 7. If you break the batteries into 3 groups: Two groups of 3 and one group of 2. By doing this you guarantee that one of the groups has 2 working batteries. Both of the groups of 3 have 3 possible combinations of 2 batteries and the group of 2 only has 1 combination. So, 3 + 3 + 1 = 7 tries at most to find two working batteries.
Question: A man leaves a $100,000 dollar bill on his desk and leaves work. When he returns the money is gone. He has three suspects: the cook, the cleaning lady, and the mail guy. The cook says he put the money under a book on his desk to keep it safe. They check and it is no longer there. The maid says she moved it when she was cleaning to the inside of the book between page 1 and 2. They open the book and look between page number 1 and 2 but it isn't there. The mail guy says he saw it sticking out of the book and to keep it safe he moved it to between page number 2 and 3. Once they are done the culprit is promptly arrested.Who did it and how did he know?
Answer: The mail guy did it because if he checked between page numbers 1 and 2 page numbers 2 and 3 are opposite sides of one page and could not hold the dollar bill.