Question: You have a flashlight that takes 2 working batteries. You have 8 batteries but only 4 of them work.
What is the fewest number of pairs you need to test to guarantee you can get the flashlight on?
Answer: 7. If you break the batteries into 3 groups: Two groups of 3 and one group of 2. By doing this you guarantee that one of the groups has 2 working batteries. Both of the groups of 3 have 3 possible combinations of 2 batteries and the group of 2 only has 1 combination. So, 3 + 3 + 1 = 7 tries at most to find two working batteries.
Question: There is a farmer who has three sons. Nearing his death, he asked his three sons to find two objects that can fill the room he's in. The one who can deliver will be chosen as his heir. So the oldest son goes to the market to get hay while the middle son go get leaves. The youngest son goes to a shop and buys two things that he put in his pocket. The oldest son's hay only fills half the room, the middle son's leaves fills 2/4 quarters of the room, while the youngest fills the room with his two objects. Question: What are the two objects that the youngest son used to fill the room?
Answer: A match and a candle.