Question: There are four men: Abe, Butch, Cam, and Dan. There are four hats: two white and two black. They each get a hat: Abe gets black, Butch gets white, Cam gets black, and Dan gets white. They don't know what hat color they have. Abe goes into a room so that no one can see his hat. The others line up in front of the door in the order Butch, Cam, and Dan (Butch can't see the others hats, Cam can see Butch's, and Dan can see Cam and Butch's hats). Whoever can figure out their hat color first wins $1,000. If they are wrong they are out of the running.
Which man can figure out his hat color without a doubt?
Answer: Cam can figure it out. If Dan saw that Cam and Butch had the same color hat he would know his hat color. Since he doesn't quickly figure out his hat color, Cam knows that him and Butch don't have the same hat color. So all he has to do is say that his hat color is the opposite of Butch's hat color (after giving enough time to be sure that Dan doesn't know his own color).
Question: A man is trapped in a room. In the room their is a table, chair, 2 doors, and a small hole in the ceiling 12 inches in diameter. Behind one of the doors is an extremely hungry lion that hasn't eaten in a couple of days. Behind the other door is a glass tunnel that magnifies the sun creating temperatures so high that even opening the door could kill you.
How does the man escape?
Answer: He waits until it is night (he can tell through the hole in the ceiling) then leaves through the glass tunnel.
Question: You are walking down a path until there is a fork in the road. One side is the good path and the on the other side is the bad path. However you don't know which one is which. Both paths have identical twins guarding the paths. One guard tells the truth, the other lies all the time no matter what. But still you don't know which one tells the truth or which one tell lies. If you want to to go to the good path, what question should you ask the guards
Answer: You would ask "which path would your brother go?" Take the opposite path they are pointing
Question: Four men walk into the desert. Suddenly all four are simultaneously knocked out. They awake buried to their heads in the sand unable to look anywhere but straight ahead. They are positioned so that each man sees another's head before him. However between the first and second man there is a separating wall. So the first man sees only desert. The second man sees only wall. The third man sees another's head and a wall. The fourth man sees two heads and a wall. On top of each mans head is a hat. The underside of each cap is black, but the outside of each cap is either blue or white. Before any of the men can speak, their captors tell them if they speak, they die. However, if any of them can guess the color of their cap on the first try they go free. The captors tell them that there are two blue caps and two white caps. Being an omniscient observer of the situation, we know that the order of the caps are: blue, white, blue, white. So knowing the perspective of each man in the sand, and that they can only see the color of caps/wall/desert in front of them, which of the four men knows for certain the color of his own cap. More importantly: why?
Answer: The third man. This is because he knows there are only two of each color cap. If the man behind him (the fourth man) saw two caps that were the same color in front of him, he would know that his own must be the opposite. However, because the caps alternate in color. The fourth man has only a 50% chance of getting his hat color correct, so therefore he stays quiet. The third man realizes that the fourth man is quiet because he must not see two caps of the same color in front of him, otherwise the fourth man would say the opposite of the caps in front of him. Therefore, the third man presumes his own cap must be the opposite of the mans in front of him, and his presumption is correct. Under this same logic, after the third man speaks his color hat, the second man, even though he sees only wall, would be the next to go free, because he knows his cap must be the opposite of whichever color the third mans cap was.
Question: A man in prison has a visitor. Afterward a guard asks the inmate who the visitor was to him. The inmate replies: "brothers and sisters I have none, but that man's father is my father's son." Who was the visitor to the inmate?
Answer: His son.
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