Question: There are 1600 people sitting around a circular table. The first person (person 1) has a sword and kills the second person then hands it to the next alive person (in this case person 3). Person 3 stabs person 4 and gives the sword to person 5. This goes on until person 1499 kills person 1500. Then person 1 kills person 3 and so on. This is repeated until there is only a single person remaining.
Who remains in the end?
Answer: Person 1153.
If you have any number of people equal to a power of 2 (2, 4, 8, etc.) then the first person will be the last remaining. The closest power of 2 to 1600 is 1024 (210). So the first person to go of the 1600 when there is 1024 people left will be the last person remaining. 1600 - 1024 = 576. 576 * 2 = 1152. Person 1152 will be the 576th person killed and person 1153 will be the first person to go of the remaining 1024 people.
Question: An empty bus pulls up to a stop and 10 people get on. At the next stop 5 people get off and twice as many people get on as at the first stop. At the third stop 25 get off.
How many people are on the bus at this point?
Answer: Just 1, the driver.
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