Question: There are 4 light bulbs in a room and 4 switches corresponding to these four light bulbs (in a random order). You cannot see the light bulbs from where the switches are.
If you can only visit the room with the light bulbs once, how can you figure out which switch belongs to which light bulb?
Answer: Switch on two of the light bulbs for a long enough period of time for them to get hot. Then switch off one of those light bulbs and switch on one of the light bulbs that was off. At this point there will be a light bulb that is hot and on, hot and off, cold and on, and cold and off (allowing you to figure out which bulb goes to which switch).
Question: Your father is a scientist who has invented a red pill which, if eaten with 1 blue pill which he has invented, will grant immortality. The night he invents it, he gives you 2 red and 2 blue pills just in case one of them is lost or substandard. He also warns you that an overdose will cause the opposite effect and kill you instead. You put the pills in your pocket and leave his lab for home. On the way home, you are abducted by aliens who blindfold you and throw you into a singularity. At this point, you remember the pills your father gave you. You take them out (you can move and have enough oxygen in space for a short time), but realize that you can't tell the red pill from the blue pill. Even if you take off your blindfold, you can't see anything due to your proximity to the black hole. Given the circumstances, how do you successfully eat 1 red and 1 blue pill and survive?
Answer: Eat half of each pill.