Question: You are playing a game of dodge ball with two other people, John and Tom. You're standing in a triangle and you all take turns throwing at one of the others of your choosing until there is only one person remaining. You have a 30 percent chance of hitting someone you aim at, John has a 50 percent chance, and Tom a 100 percent change (he never misses). If you hit somebody they are out and no longer get a turn.
If the order of throwing is you, John, then Tom; what should you do to have the best chance of winning?
Answer: Miss the first time on purpose.
If you try to hit John and do. Then Tom goes next and he will hit you and you will lose for sure. If you aim at Tom and hit him then John will go for you. If you miss on your first turn John will go for Tom for sure because he is a stronger player. If he hits him then it's just you and John, but you are going first. If he misses him then Tom will hit John and it will be just you and Tom, but again in this case you are going first.
Question: An ant gets onto one end of a tight rope that is 1 meter long. The ant is traveling at 1 centimeter per second, but the entire rope is being stretched an extra 1 meter (1,000 centimeters) a second (it can be stretched forever).
Will the ant ever reach the other end of the rope?
Answer: He will reach the end of the rope eventually. Once he gets onto the rope, the rope behind him also stretches, so this must also be accounted for.
Question: There are 100 prisoners lining up to go to jail. Each prisoner is wearing a hat that is either black or white. The prisoners don't know their own hat color, just the hat color of those in front of them in line (the first prisoner in line can't see anyone's hat and the last prisoner can see everyone's hat except their own). Starting from the back, one of the guards asks each prisoner what color their hat is. If they are correct they get to go free but if they are wrong they go to jail.If the prisoners get to discuss a plan, how can at least 99 of them be saved?
Answer: The back prisoner will yell "black" if there is an odd number of black hats in front of him and "white" if there is an even number of black hats in front of him. The next prisoner will then count the number of black hats in front of him and if it was odd and is now even, or vice versa, then that person knows what color their hat is. The next person then knows their hat color based on what the people before them said and how many black hats are in front of them. In this way the front 99 prisoners will know their hat color and will be set free. The prisoner in the back who goes first has a 50 percent chance of being set free.
Question: Five pirates are parting ways after finding a treasure of 100 pieces of gold. The pirates decide to split it based on a vote. Each pirate, from oldest to youngest, gets to propose a plan on how to split the gold.
If at least 50 percent of the other remaining pirates agree on the plan, that is how they will split the gold. If less than 50 percent of the pirates agree, the pirate who came up with the plan will be thrown overboard. Each pirate is smart, greedy, and wants to throw as many others overboard as possible without reducing the amount of gold they get.
What plan can the first (oldest) pirate propose to live and get as much gold as possible?
Answer: He can propose a plan that he gets 98 pieces of gold, the 3rd pirate gets 1 piece, and the 5th pirate gets 1 as well.
If there were just 2 pirates the younger pirate would definitely deny the plan so he could get all of the gold.
If there were 3 pirates the first pirate can offer the second pirate 1 piece of gold and take the rest himself because the second pirate wouldn't get anything if he has to propose a plan himself.
If there were 4 pirates the first pirate could take 99 for himself and offer 1 to the youngest pirate. They would both agree. If the youngest disagrees then he won't get any gold in the next plan.
So when there are 5 pirates it is in the interest of the 3rd and 5th pirate to accept 1 piece, because if they don't they won't get anything in the next plan.
Question: Thomas has missed an excessive number of days of school, so he must meet with Principal Davis. Mr. Davis asks him "Why on Earth have you missed so many days?"
Thomas replies "There just isn't enough time for school. I need 8 hours of sleep a day, which adds up to about 122 days a year. Weekends off is 104 days a year. Summer vacation is about 60 days. If I spend about an hour on each meal, that's 3 hours a day or 45 days a year. I need at least 2 hours of exercise and relaxation time each day to stay physically and mentally fit, adding another 30 days.
Add all of that up and you get about 361 days. That only leaves 4 days for school."
The principal knows Thomas is full of it, but can't figure out why. Where is Thomas going wrong?
Answer: There are two reasons:
First, Thomas is double counting a lot of the days. A lot of the time spent sleeping, eating, and relaxing occurs during weekends and the summer. Weekends also occur during the summer, so all of these hours are getting counted several times.
Secondly, school isn't an all day thing. So the 4 days actually represents more days of school. If school is 6 hours per day, those four days represents 16 days of school.
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